Authors: George Ostrouchov, Don Maxwell, Rizwan A. Ashraf, and Christian Engelmann (Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)); Mallikarjun Shankar (Oak Ridge National Laboratory); and James H. Rogers (Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL))
Abstract: The Cray XK7 Titan was the top supercomputer system in the world for a long time and remained critically important throughout its nearly seven-year life. It was an interesting machine from a reliability viewpoint as most of its power came from 18,688 GPUs whose operation was forced to execute three rework cycles, two on the GPU mechanical assembly and one on the GPU circuitboards. We write about the last rework cycle and a reliability analysis of over 100,000 years of GPU lifetimes during Titan’s 6-year-long productive period. Using time between failures analysis and statistical survival analysis techniques, we find that GPU reliability is dependent on heat dissipation to an extent that strongly correlates with detailed nuances of the cooling architecture and job scheduling. We describe the history, data collection, cleaning and analysis and give recommendations for future supercomputing systems. We make the data and our analysis codes publicly available.
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